Cancer foundation uses new app to navigate the cancer recovery process

Cancer foundation uses a new app to navigate the cancer recovery process

By Molly McCarthy, the Contributing writer
Cancer Resource Foundation Inc.'s Program Coordinator Christina McCarthy (left) and Chief Executive Officer and Co-Founder Mary Lou Woodford stand next to a poster for the 1SourceApp. (Photo/Molly McCarthy)
Cancer Resource Foundation Inc.'s Program Coordinator Christina McCarthy (left) and Chief Executive Officer and Co-Founder Mary Lou Woodford stand next to a poster for the 1SourceApp. (Photo/Molly McCarthy)
Marlborough – The Cancer Resource Foundation Inc. (CRF) was established after its co-founders, President and Chair Karleen R. Habin, RN, BCCS, MPHC, and Chief Executive Officer Mary Lou Woodford, RN, MBA, CCM, repeatedly experienced the overwhelming confusion that comes with navigating a cancer diagnosis. The CRF is a national 501(c) 3 nonprofit organization headquartered in Marlborough with a mission to advocate and provide support for the prevention, early detection, diagnosis, treatment, and survivorship of cancer through patient assistance, education and research. As a nurse, case manager, and public health professional, Woodford had 30 years of experience working with underserved diverse populations before co-founding the CRF. She had continually seen the challenges cancer patients face in coordinating their healthcare. In 1998, Habin, who has over 25 years of nursing experience, teamed up with Woodford to make navigating the health care system easier for both cancer patients and caregivers. From this stemmed The Breast Cancer Research Guide of Massachusetts.
A private-public collaboration printed resource directories to help disadvantaged Massachusetts women find the resources they need to recover from breast cancer. Fifty thousand directories were printed and distributed. Over time, the information in the resource guide needed updating. “We knew that there are things that we can give people access to in a much more efficient way. So we started the Cancer Resource Foundation in 2009 and started to develop the online version of the resource guide in 2010,” Woodford said. This was the beginning of the 1SourceApp, a secure web-based application tool that allows people to create an account and apply for multiple programs by entering their information only once. The 1SourceApp ensures that all information on the application is processed as quickly as possible. Users have 24-hour access and notifications allow applicants, providers, caregivers, family members, genetic counselors, and case managers to see when an application determination has been made. The 1SourceApp connects patients and caregivers to programs that can help pay the “out-of-pocket” costs for products such as breast prostheses, post-mastectomy bras and garments, lymphedema sleeves, and gauntlets, wigs, meals, medication, and more. Many of these programs are part of the All4One Alliance, a partnership of public and private organizations across the country that share the CRF vision. 7 Cancer Apps That Can Benefit Cancer Patients - NFCR “We developed a membership so stores across the country can become a member of the alliance. They get a page on our website and they get a fundraiser page and the benefit to that is they can use our 501c3 to raise money to help women in their community. It's a really interesting concept; it's a different business model, that we know of, that exists anywhere,” Woodford explained. Assistance programs for genetic testing are also offered through the 1SourceApp. The CRF implemented the Genetic Information for Treatment Surveillance and Support (GIFTS) in 2010. It launched the National Genetic Testing Co-Pay and Assistance Program in 2011; the program went national in 2012. “We have found that coinsurance and deductibles are a barrier, specifically for genetic testing,” Woodford said. Woodford compares the 1SourceApp to the common application for colleges. “When I applied to college I got all of the paper applications and completed them all, even though 75 percent of the content was the same. The organization [providing a service or product to the patient] will get the information from the common app but they still determine eligibility; we do's. They will still get to give out the product the way they give out the product. It's just a different way for the information to get from the application to organizations in a more efficient way. It's easier for the person who needs it. That's the goal,” Woodford said. For more information please visit…

All for one and one for all, except when it comes to NATO

The majority of people in the UK and most other European members of NATO say they no longer support the key principle of the alliance: namely that an armed attack on one must be regarded as an attack on all. This illustrates in no uncertain terms the differences between many governments and the societies they serve.All4One Alliance Commercial - YouTube The Pew Research Centre’s survey found that only in the United States and Canada was there clear support for defending an ally – which leaves us with the rather counter-intuitive conclusion that the two North American powers are more prepared to defend Europe than Europe itself (let’s not forget the calls from Washington, throughout the Cold War and again in recent months for Europe, particularly the UK, to do more for its own defence). But some scholars of international relations have often pointed to the counter-intuitive popular perceptions of NATO in Europe. For many in Europe, there is a clear conflation of NATO as a defence alliance depending on the US and at the same time of the US as a belligerent and irresponsible force. On the other side of the Atlantic, there is a clear commitment to the responsibility to defending Europe while at the same time assuming that Europeans are riding free on North American generosity. The results of the Pew study show that when it comes to NATO defence commitments, there is an equitable distribution of those who would support their allies with military force and those who would question the circumstances in which such an attack would happen. In other words, while some would see coming to the defence of an ally as an automatic commitment, others think that context matters as to why such a commitment would be necessary. We can see these two groups as advocates and sceptics. The principle is spelt out in Article V of the North Atlantic Treaty. NATO invoked Article V in response to the 9/11 attacks, ironically against the wishes of George W Bush’s administration. On the other hand, NATO did not invoke Article V when Argentina invaded the Falklands (Malvinas) in 1982 despite the episode involving the sovereign territory of the UK.

Interesting times

Public support for defending one’s allies should be put into context. There has been a considerable anti-militarist public feeling in Europe since World War II due to fears that militaries themselves beget wars. This prevailed even during the Cold War. But given events in Ukraine, Europe is now in a much more uncertain position than it was even during the Cold War when it was faced with the sometimes imminent prospect of conflict with the Soviet Union and the Warsaw Pact.Ten Interesting Facts About Time - Replicon These days there is less consensus on the perceived threat of Russia to Europe or to particular European states bordering Russia, such as Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania – which are members both of NATO and the European Union. Given this lack of certainty, we should probably expect a degree of wavering public opinion. But what if we ask the question the other way, as in: if a country were attacked, would public opinion expect the allied military intervention to help defend that country? The answer to this is yes. In most countries, there is an overwhelming expectation that allies will come to their aid. The ally most people expect to step in is the US. And those countries most expectant of US support are Canada, Spain, Italy, Germany and the UK. Herein lies a paradox where many people are sceptical of the need to go to the aid of their allies while at the same time assuming that allies will come to theirs if and when they need it. History has shown that allies will come to the aid of allies and that the United States still acts as a guarantor of security in the region. But it is this relationship with the United States – and how that will work in the context of a larger relationship with Russia, the Middle East and China – which most people see as the key issue when it comes to membership of NATO and the principle that allies must come to the aid of allies.

Beware of the bear

In particular, it is this changed relationship with Russia that causes the most concern. The Pew survey also showed there is an overwhelming perception in Europe and North America that Russia is responsible for the situation in Ukraine – but that there is considerable resistance of becoming militarily involved in Ukraine itself against Russian or Russian-backed forces.Beware the Bear! - Imgflip Even in the US, there is ambiguity: a minority supports NATO sending arms to Ukraine while at the same time a majority believes that NATO should offer Ukraine membership, meaning that while military support is not favoured in the first instance, future commitments to Ukraine defence would be. What does this mean in the larger scheme of things? European security is not a major issue in electoral campaigns in any NATO or EU member-state, so these public opinions on NATO, Ukraine – or even Russia – are not being expressed through the ballot box. So whatever research tells us about what the public thinks, the lack of public involvement in the issue creates space for a status quo arrangement on the part of national politicians who know that their commitments, expectations and even – let us say – responsibilities will be to come to the aid of allies should the day come.…

A New Alliance for Global Change

A New Alliance for Global Change

We are witnessing a sea change in the way society’s problems are solved, work is performed, and businesses grow. Collaborations between corporations and social entrepreneurs can create and expand markets on a scale not seen since the Industrial Revolution. These markets will reach everyone, but especially the 4 billion people who are not yet part of the world’s formal economy. They will offer new and remarkable products and services in sectors as diverse as education, transportation, and finance. You may be skeptical of this claim, and with good reason. The citizen sector—the term we use to define the millions of groups established and run by mission-minded individuals across the globe who are attempting to address critical social needs—has long been regarded as understaffed and inefficient. But that has changed. We work with some 3,000 social entrepreneurs worldwide, and over the past 30 years, we’ve seen the citizen sector catch up with business as it has increased its productivity, size, and reach. Its organizations are attracting talented and creative leaders, and their work is changing the game in critical industries and areas such as energy and health care. For-profit organizations today have an opportunity to collaborate with citizen-sector organizations (CSOs) on large-scale problems that neither group has been able to solve on its own. The power of such partnerships lies in the complementary strengths of the participants: Businesses offer scale, expertise in manufacturing and operations, and financing. Social entrepreneurs and organizations contribute lower costs, strong social networks, and deep insights into customers and communities. But to work together effectively, they must focus on creating real economic as well as social value. We believe they can do so by forming what we call hybrid value chains (HVCs), which capitalize on those complementary strengths to increase benefits and lower costs.

If you’re not thinking about HVC collaboration, you’ll soon be guilty of strategy malpractice.

This trend has been developing for years, and we’ve participated in pilot projects that have delivered impressive results and promise extraordinary growth. HVCs can now be found in many industries all over the world. Collaboration between corporations and CSOs has reached a tipping point: It is becoming standard operating procedure. Indeed, we believe that if you’re not thinking about such collaboration, you’ll soon be guilty of strategy malpractice.

The Vibrancy of the Citizen Sector

Before we explore the inner workings of hybrid value chains, it may be helpful to look at how we got here. In the 1700s business became entrepreneurial. Upstarts devising faster and more efficient ways to produce goods ushered in the Industrial Revolution. They introduced innovation after innovation, ultimately changing the world. After remaining flat for a millennium, per capita income in the West rose by an average of 20% in the 1700s, 200% in the 1800s, and 740% in the past century. But while the for-profit sector enjoyed sweeping progress, the citizen sector languished. It faced little outside market pressure and relied heavily on funding from governments that, as monopolies, feared competition. CSOs felt little push to innovate; as a result, they fell far behind in productivity, performance, pay rates, confidence, and reputation. By 1980 the imbalance between the business and social sectors of society had become intolerable. (We had great TVs but lousy education.) New opportunities emerged across the world (except where governments got in the way), and the citizen sector restructured itself to become entrepreneurial and competitive. It rapidly increased productivity and scale, lowering the cost of goods and services it provided relative to business offerings. Since then, the citizen sector has been creating jobs about three times as fast as have other employers in the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development countries. In Brazil, the number of CSOs rose from about 36,000 to nearly a million over the past 20 years. In the United States, their number has grown by more than 300% since 1982. Today millions of these groups attract talented individuals who long for challenging and lucrative work that is consistent with their personal values and goals. Take David Green, who helped start Aurolab, an India-based nonprofit that produces intraocular lenses to restore sight to cataract patients. It has managed to reduce the price of lenses from $300 to $10 or less, by using emerging technology and restructuring its manufacturing costs. Aurolab is the manufacturing division of Aravind Eye Hospitals, which charges patients for the lenses on a sliding scale depending on their income. It has captured about 8% of the global intraocular lens market and sells about 1.5 million such lenses each year in 109 countries. Green, working with Ashoka, the International Agency for the Prevention of Blindness, and Deutsche Bank, has also launched The Eye Fund, a $15 million loan fund that will enable eye-care groups to grow far faster than they otherwise could, significantly speeding the reduction of blindness. Or consider Rodrigo Baggio, who created a chain of computer schools serving hundreds of slums across Latin America and Asia. He persuaded one organization after another to donate, warehouse, and transport their used computers, and thousands of slum dwellers to set up and run the schools. These schools now boast some 700,000 graduates. We could go on and on. But our point is that many social entrepreneurs are already out there changing the world—and businesses have largely been overlooking them. It was previously safe to ignore the citizen sector because this segment of the economy was relatively small in scale and low in productivity. That’s no longer true. The companies that work with and learn from the sector and its leaders will reach large new markets. They will also gain a competitive advantage from new business models and first-mover benefits. The time is ripe for collaboration because the two sectors are now equally innovative. Together they can promote changes as powerful and widespread as those produced by the Industrial Revolution.

Hybrid Value Chains

Hybrid value chains represent a systemic shift in the way businesses and CSOs interact. They are collaborations that redefine value in game-changing ways, with each side clearly understanding (and willingly accepting) the risks and rewards. Consider the housing industry. Currently, one-sixth of the world’s population lives in slums and squatter cities. That’s a billion people who are shut out of the formal housing market. If you’re a cement company, a tile maker, a brick manufacturer, a banker, a developer, or a utility, just think: What would it mean for your business if you could unlock the potential of a trillion-dollar housing market? Until recently, that was nearly impossible, because the business world acting alone—with its existing cost structures and limited understanding of local markets—could not reach those customers. Nor, for their part, had governments or CSOs figured out how to serve them. But look what happened when a for-profit ceramic tile maker partnered with a South American CSO.  

What would it mean for your business if you could unlock the potential of a trillion-dollar housing market?

Colcerámica (a Colombian subsidiary of Corona, one of the largest building-materials retailers in South America) wanted to learn more about the low-income market for ceramics and home products. We introduced the company’s executives to Haidy Duque, a cofounder of Kairos, which grew out of a human-rights organization that works with people displaced by armed conflict. They collaborated on market research and developed a business plan. Colcerámica provided the product—its Iberica tile line—and the technical and business know-how (sales and marketing techniques, for instance). Kairos, in return for fees, recruited and managed a female sales force. That model generated income for previously unemployed women and pushed the product into the hands of potential customers, rather than waiting for a storefront to pull them in. It reduced Colcerámica’s distribution costs by a third, so the company could afford to pay a percentage of its profits to the women sales promoters and community partners. Other local CSOs performed administrative functions in return for a percentage of revenues, which they reinvested in community projects. The program, now called Viste Tu Casa (Dress Your Home), launched in January 2006. In 2009 its sales reached nearly $12 million as it expanded to five of the six largest cities in Colombia, in partnership with five CSOs. It has helped more than 28,000 families improve their living conditions, and 179 saleswomen are each earning $230 a month. In India, Ashoka is working with mortgage companies, for-profit housing developers, and local citizen-sector groups to create a thriving housing market—delivering affordable new apartments for the “informal” members of the local workforce. These consumers often have a steady source of income but lack proof of stability and therefore are ineligible for mortgage loans. India’s housing deficit has been conservatively estimated at 24.7 million homes—perhaps the largest potential housing market in the world. And that doesn’t include what will be needed as more than 700 million Indians move from villages to cities. Within this new construction HVC, CSOs can serve as demand aggregators, bringing groups of consumers to for-profit developers, or full design and investment partners. More than 2,500 homes are being built, with the promise of another 7,500 within the next 18 months—representing more than $100 million in sales. Agriculture is another market that profits from hybrid value chains. Consider drip irrigation systems in Mexico, where more than 2 million small farmers live on less than $2 a day and work, on average, fewer than five hectares (about 12 acres) of land. Most companies believe it isn’t cost-effective to serve such low-income consumers. But Ashoka and local citizen groups persuaded Amanco, a maker of water-conveyance products, otherwise. Viewing these farmers as a significant market opportunity, it is reengineering its business model to increase the value of small individual transactions. CSOs are critical to this effort: They organize farmers in loan groups, promote irrigation technologies, and even install systems. They also help the farmers gain access to consumer financing so that they can afford Amanco’s products. This newly created drip irrigation market is estimated to be worth $56 million a year. The customers have become more efficient farmers and enjoy higher and more certain yields of multiple crops, sometimes tripling their prior income.

A Win-Win-Win Proposition

Businesses that enter into HVCs can expect three kinds of return on their investments:


HVCs unleash many growth opportunities. For example, based on their joint research, Ashoka and the consulting firm Hystra estimate that a $553 billion market exists for safe, clean, and affordable energy for low-income consumers. Moreover, if a business can construct an HVC to profitably serve lower-income consumers, it can often provide those services to higher-income consumers as well.    


Companies that pioneer HVCs will run up the learning curve, leaving competitors behind. And as they gain experience, they can carry their new knowledge into different environments. In “How GE Is Disrupting Itself (HBR October 2009), Jeffrey R. Immelt, Vijay Govindarajan, and Chris Trimble write: “Success in developing countries is a prerequisite for continued vitality in developed ones.” GE is pushing to “reverse innovate” products in emerging markets because they can “create brand-new markets in the developed world—by establishing dramatically lower price points or pioneering new applications.” When designed correctly, HVCs, too, can be a prime source of such disruptive offerings.


HVCs require entrepreneurs who can spot opportunities, devise creative solutions, and collaborate with a diverse group of partners. They give companies a chance to identify and encourage talented leaders. They also attract progressive thinkers and increase commitment to employers, because working on this new frontier of business is exciting, socially relevant, and challenging. CSOs will gain at least as much, beginning with access to cheaper capital. McKinsey estimates that philanthropic capital actually costs those seeking it anywhere from 25% to 40% of what they get, once the expense of pursuing grants is factored in. Capital from for-profit finance firms typically costs 2% to 5%—and, surprisingly, business sources are much more patient. CSOs, especially early actors, will take market share from other CSOs that can’t provide the same goods or services. This will allow them to scale up, driving costs down further. The profits from an HVC can be reinvested in the group’s work or used to subsidize those who can’t pay full price for the service or product. CSOs will attract and retain talented people who want their work to make a positive difference on a large scale. And, last but not least, CSOs will vastly improve the lives of the people they sought to help in the first place. Customers, too, benefit greatly from an HVC. They get lower-cost access to high-quality products, from building materials to medical diagnostic kits. Not every situation calls for an HVC, of course. Three kinds of opportunities are particularly ripe for this form of business strategy:

When the citizen sector is large and growing fast.

Ashoka estimates that the global low-income health care market is now worth $202 billion but will grow exponentially because of emerging business and social innovations. The global low-income food market is even more immense: a fast-growing $3.6 trillion. Any entrepreneur’s heart would beat faster thinking about all this untapped potential.

When market values are changing dramatically.

In markets such as energy and the environment, customers are often asked to make big compromises because existing business models are inflexible. HVCs can help organizations figure out ways to lessen those compromises. For instance, in many parts of India, people use stoves fueled by kerosene or wood to cook and heat their homes, at a great cost to both their personal health and the environment. On the advice of the late C.K. Prahalad, BP partnered with local manufacturers and two Indian Ashoka fellows, Muthu Velayutham and Prema Gopalan, to manufacture and sell biofuel for stoves. Users’ monthly energy costs dropped, as did their exposure to indoor smoke. Although this business is still in its infancy, the goal is to reach 20 million households in rural India by 2020. BP has decided not to continue because it considers the business outside its core product line, but local Indian companies in partnership with CSOs and rural retailers have stepped in to fill the gap.

When charitable funding and “free services” can be replaced with genuine markets.

Innovative pricing and new approaches can lead to goods and services that deliver both traditional and new value. Microcredit comes to mind: Thanks to the work of Grameen Bank and similar lending organizations worldwide, micro borrowers have been able to create their own businesses—spurring economic growth in their communities—while generating a multibillion-dollar finance industry.

Constructing a Hybrid Value Chain

From our experience devising HVCs and working with organizations involved in them, we offer the following advice to executives who are ready to build their own:

Ask hard questions about how the business is currently done.

The value chain concept, developed simultaneously in the 1980s by Michael Porter and a group of McKinsey consultants, replaced a framework called the business system, which essentially created a product, made it, and sold it. The value chain involves choosing, providing, and communicating the value. It forces managers and strategists to examine the relationship between benefits and price. It pushes executives to think deeply about how customers define price: Do they focus on the purchase price or lifetime costs? How price-sensitive are different segments? How elastic is demand? These are all critical questions for the would-be creator of a hybrid value chain. Organizations considering one must think holistically about their business strategy and the industry they’re in.

Reconceive value along multiple dimensions to find new markets.

The for-profit Healthpoint Services, incubated at Ashoka, brings together Indian businesses, citizen-sector groups, and for-profit venture capital and social funds to deliver modern, evidence-based health care to rural villages in India. Its clinics, called E-Health Points, use telemedicine—video technology and electronic medical records—so that patients don’t have to travel for a day or more (and sacrifice income during that time) to reach a doctor. The clinics keep costs low for patients with a combination of advanced point-of-care diagnostics, generic drugs, and careful local staffing. Consultations are just $1. Many diagnostic tests cost less than 50 cents; none costs more than $4. The clinics also provide clean drinking and cooking water on a monthly subscription basis at a cost of roughly 5 cents a day per household. And when customers come to collect their water, staffers take the opportunity to raise awareness of health issues and early prevention. Based on initial success, the finance minister for Punjab has asked that 600 E-Health Points be built in that state. Models like this can be exported to many countries, including developed ones, turning scarcity into abundance. Healthpoint already has pilots planned in Southeast Asia and Latin America. For its target market, the scarcity was access to services: Most patients in rural areas lacked transportation and needed to work long hours. By putting clinics nearby and using technology to bring doctors to patients, Healthpoint unlocked latent demand, showing that even low-income consumers are willing to pay for quality services.

Look for pricing and financing innovations.

This is a critical point. Just like businesses, HVCs need different types of capital at different stages of their life cycles. They may need up-front seed money, but sooner rather than later, customers will have to pay for the product or service they’re receiving. And designers of HVCs will have to come up with appropriate financing solutions. They may work with nontraditional partners—some utility companies, for instance, provide “retail” financing at relatively low risk because they are close to their customers—or they may need to work with the usual suspects in unusual ways: The Indian company Selco brought its $400 solar home-lighting system within reach of customers by working with banks and microfinance institutions to help the lenders understand how solar products increase productivity. Other organizations turn to lease models. Commercial microcredit funds are an early (if small) example of how the finance industry profitably provides direct investments in citizen-sector work. The industry can do so because there are 120 to 150 large, well-established microcredit lenders in whose securities these funds can safely invest large sums without incurring significant expense.

It’s time the finance industry developed smart ways to invest in the world and those who want to change it.

Financial institutions will have many attractive opportunities to invest in markets created by hybrid value chains. Indeed, HVCs present a huge opportunity for the finance industry. Here is why: First, because HVCs are businesses, they are both stable and easily understood by business people. Second, HVCs with successful financing structures can generate what finance firms love—millions of loans that have low transaction costs and low to moderate risk. (Such financing structures themselves are commonly HVCs: CSOs make the loans and sell them to bankers.) Third, packaging these loans allows financial companies to give their clients a choice among significant social impacts (from housing to education) and locations (from Brazil to Poland) along with solid returns. At least for early movers, the ability to offer so much choice will confer a competitive advantage. It’s time for the finance industry to develop smart ways for clients to invest in the world and the people who want to change it. Right now, those investors are limited to foundations and various kinds of “impact philanthropy.” Individuals and institutions should instead be able to invest in financial products that deliver solid returns and enable people to irrigate their land, rebuild their homes, educate their children, and transport products to market. Investors should be able to weigh their risks and rewards based on financial as well as other returns they value.

Organize to innovate.

Two distinct innovation challenges arise when building HVCs—finding good ideas and developing business models to deliver them at scale. Ideas are everywhere, of course, but they increasingly come from emerging markets. Mukesh Ambani, the chairman and managing director of Reliance Industries, says, “Twenty years from now we will not talk about garages in Silicon Valley. We will talk about projects in rural areas of India, which are then scaled all over the world.” The Ashoka-Lemelson Fellows program has identified 100 inventor-entrepreneurs, largely from developing countries, who have launched social enterprises in clean energy, mobile technology, water and sanitation, and many other areas. We’ve already mentioned that GE and others have learned to reverse-innovate products designed for emerging markets. Keeping a close eye on these markets is a good first step. Because HVCs are still evolving, there’s no single formula for success. But experience has taught us some lessons about the second challenge—developing business models. We know, for instance, that companies wrestle with where to house their hybrid ventures. We recommend not categorizing such efforts as corporate social responsibility because the CSR arms of most companies focus on doing good and demonstrating impact but are rarely asked to generate healthy returns.

Appoint a leader.

HVCs, which start as constellations of potential players, are not self-organizing. Someone must take the lead and decide who is in and who is out. Because HVCs are a pathway to explosive growth, both partners—corporations and CSOs—will want to assign talented executives to the opportunity. Those people must be patient, persistent, and able to earn the trust of all the actors—that is, they must be empathetic, good at team building, and willing to work directly both across sectors and with unfamiliar suppliers and customers. A corporate intrapreneur or the head of a CSO might lead the team—whoever it is, he or she will have to manage lots of complex moving pieces as the HVC forms.

Give the team time and permission to fail.

Organizations can afford to tolerate missteps and failures when the goal is to exploit an immense opportunity. Learning what doesn’t work will move them one step closer to discovering what does. Of course, results are important—sooner or later the business model needs to show that it can be profitable and scalable. It’s critical to strike a balance between being patient and being demanding. Remember Tracy Kidder’s marvelous book The Soul of a New Machine, about a project team and its race to develop a new computer? Forming a hybrid value chain is a similar story: It involves a relentless team of players who are ready to welcome risks and challenges because they believe strongly that what they are doing is not only about profits but also about human progress.…

Types Of Cases Criminal Lawyer Deal With And Types Of Criminal Lawyers

Criminal lawyers specialized in criminal law. This could be a misdemeanor or criminal, where you have been charged with a crime. When you are charged with a crime, you are not considered guilty until proven guilty; it is your duty to try to make sure that you are not guilty. This means that they review your case, work with you to gather all the relevant information, and then deal with other lawyers working on the case to try to find a quick solution.

One of the reasons why you may want to engage a criminal defense lawyer is if you are charged with a DUI. Driving under the influence is a serious condition that can result in the loss of your license, a large fine, or even a prison sentence. It is your lawyer's duty to try to achieve the best results through a good agreement that can benefit you in the long term. They will gather evidence against you to help you determine the best appeal for the best outcome.

Domestic violence is another crime that you may want to appoint a criminal lawyer to act on your behalf. Although you may feel that you can execute the law in your hands, having a lawyer who works for you can provide a variety of benefits that will help you achieve the best agreement and the best results. When it comes to domestic violence, and your partner claims that you mistreated him unless there are witnesses, this is a scenario, "he said, as she said. Your lawyer will work with the available evidence, advise you, present relevant documents, and attend all pre-trial conferences to try to minimize the possibility of the case being resolved.

In any case, your goal should be not to go to trial. You want your criminal lawyer to decide to take the case to court, while it can cost you a lot of time and money. This applies if you have been accused of sexual abuse, domestic violence, or even abuse of children. In advance, you can reach a solution, the sooner you can continue with your own life.

If you are accused of theft, for example, you will have the opportunity to hire a criminal lawyer. They are the defense lawyers who will review the police report, documentation, and supporting evidence. They will review any evidence on the camera to determine if you are guilty of the crime. If they are found guilty, they will discuss your case with you and help you identify the best solutions to proceed. In some cases, if this is your first charge, your culprit may be at fault, and you may leave the service or community service instead of incarceration.

Remember that your criminal lawyers will come to expert witnesses, they will know what to do when it comes to presenting documents, and they will know how best to challenge any evidence against them. This can make choosing this type of lawyer the best solution to help you reach a quick and fair solution.

You can be sure that all defendants will have legal representation. Remember that criminal lawyers have a wealth of knowledge and experience when it comes to criminal charges. They are the best people who handle the case on your behalf and attend all the preliminary conferences with you. In that case, your case is brought before the court; you can write compelling arguments on your behalf, appeal to the jury, and help you with the best final result.

Types of criminal lawyers

Panel lawyers

Each government will have a committee of private defense attorneys who will be compensated hourly for their services and time. In general, the use of a group of defense lawyers is usually complementary to the public defense service and not as an alternative.

Private Lawyers

Private lawyers are hired by the defendants who can afford them for legal services. They are mostly employed by large, medium, and small to represent their clients on criminal defense and justice. Private lawyers are surely expensive in which a middle class or poor person cannot afford. 

District Lawyer

It is the responsibility of the Government to prosecute persons accused of a crime. In most countries, this process is carried out by the local prosecutor. Local district attorneys generally have some district attorneys who can be summoned when necessary.

Legal Aid Societies

Indigents defendants are represented by this lawyer who is employed by numerous non-profit organizations. For example, every state owns an organization that employment lawyers for the poor defenders who cannot afford to hire private lawyers.

Public Defenders

The public defender is a lawyer whose main task is to provide legal advice and representation in cases of low quality, as well as to assist people who can not compensate for legal assistance. The system appoints public defenders and is assigned to a particular state or state. Advocates work for units without income stored by the system.

The Tasks And Duties Performed By The Personal Injury Lawyer.

The most traumatic experience that you will face in life is when you sustain serious injuries due to the negligence of someone else and it might require hospitalization for an extended period of time. When you have suffered from the wrongdoing of an individual, you will need to hire an experienced and trained personal injury lawyer who will offer you excellent assistance and guidance for your case. You need to look for a lawyer who specializes in Tort Law as it covers the majority of the injury laws and negligence for offering you the highest quality services so that you will the compensation that you deserve. The training, education, and experience of the lawyer will help you in the case so that you will enjoy the benefits of the best legal representation from this professional. Furthermore, the lawyer will also help you in bringing the lawsuit against the individual who is responsible for causing you the injury and suffering. This is the best way of ensuring that you are represented excellently in the court for the injury and you will need to contact a reliable and reputable Spartanburg personal injury law firm for handling your case.

A personal injury lawyer is a specialized lawyer who is the need of the hour after you have been injured due to the negligence of the accused person. He is well versed with the law relating to personal injury and you can rest assured that he will represent you in court so that you will get the just and fair compensation that is needed for complete recovery and peace of mind. This lawyer performs a wide range of functions relating to your case as well as the insurance so that you will get the maximum amount of insurance claim from the company. The lawyer will be present with you during the entire period of the case for ensuring that you will get the maximum amount of money that you truly deserve. You will not have to worry about the case because the lawyer will handle the case on your behalf so that you will get time for recovering from your injury or accident. He will put I hard work and efforts for ensuring that you will get the maximum amount of compensation for a stress-free recovery. The lawyers will collect the details
of your case so that they can determine the best course of action that you will
need to take for pursuing the claim. Moreover, he will collect all the evidence of the case, review the police report, and gather other vital information about the case so that you will not have to worry about anything. The personal injury lawyer will also gather all the relevant accounts and talk to the witnesses so that it will give him a clear picture of what has happened on the day of the accident. He will also determine who was at fault when the injury or accident took place so that he will work towards helping you get a fair judgment for your case.

The personal injury lawyer will also handle all the paperwork pursuing the case and file it in the court so that he will draft the claim about the sequence of events on the incident day. He will offer you competent representation so that you will be compensated for your pain and sufferings as he is experienced in handling the complexities of the case. Moreover, as the lawyer is well versed with Tort law, he will find out the exact cause of the accident or injury so that you will not have to pay attention to every detail of the case. He will also document everything that has happened on the day of accident or injury while making notes of every small detail like medical treatment costs, medical bills as well as other bringing details about the case. Therefore you must hire the most experienced and competent lawyer who will assist you throughout the entire personal injury case. You will also receive compensation that you truly deserve for helping you enjoy complete peace of mind while paying attention to your recovery as the lawyer will handle everything.